The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) continues to increase globally. The continuous development of dialysis technology has greatly improved the long-term survival rate of CKD patients, but the problem of malnutrition is still becoming increasingly prominent.
Studies have found that 18% -75% of CKD patients have varying degrees of malnutrition. At present, the International Association for Renal Nutrition and Metabolism has named renal malnutrition as "protein-energy expenditure" (PEW). PEW and inflammatory states can promote each other, and vicious cycle, accelerate arterial disease, lead to malnutrition-inflammation-atherosclerosis syndrome, increase the risk of mortality in patients with CKD. Therefore, taking effective intervention measures is particularly important to improve the clinical prognosis of patients with CKD.
PEW clinical manifestations of skeletal muscle atrophy, insufficient protein intake, insulin resistance, metabolic acidosis or chronic inflammation can cause it. The current effective prevention or treatment measures for skeletal muscle atrophy are mainly to increase the body's protein synthesis or reduce protein degradation, thereby improving the clinical prognosis of patients with CKD. This article will review the current possible prevention or treatment measures.